The Motherhood Pension Gap in a Defined Contribution Pension Scheme—The Case of Poland

Anna Jędrzychowska , Ilona Kwiecień , Ewa Poprawska


A gender gap in pensions has recently been discussed in the context of non-discrimination and the sustainability of pension systems. Such systems in Europe are evolving towards strengthening the role of individual contributions from periods of paid work. Among other factors, the women’s pension gap is affected by interruptions in employment arising from care responsibilities. The purpose of this article is to measure the pension gap associated with having children in defined contribution pension systems. Using financial mathematics, the retirement capital of a childless woman (without breaks in work) was determined and compared with mothers of 1–4 children. The results indicate that the motherhood pension gap is approximately 4.5%–9.5%, 7.5%–15%, 9%–20%, and 12.5%–25% for mothers of 1, 2, 3, and 4 children, respectively. Measuring these individual gaps allows the cost of investing in children to be estimated. Significant for systemic and individual decisions is that the gap size is highest by the first and the second child, however the decision about the third child—relevant to the demography as ensuring the generational replacement—means the whole pension gap could rise to 20%. This could help support a policy of counteracting adverse demographic trends in fertility rates through the building of socially sustainable pensions schemes. In terms of future research, it forms the basis for building a gap measurement model that takes into account various drivers of the gender gap.
Author Anna Jędrzychowska (E&F / DI)
Anna Jędrzychowska,,
- Department of Insurance
, Ilona Kwiecień (E&F / DI)
Ilona Kwiecień,,
- Department of Insurance
, Ewa Poprawska (E&F / DI)
Ewa Poprawska,,
- Department of Insurance
Journal seriesSustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, (N/A 70 pkt)
Issue year2020
Publication size in sheets0.85
Article number4425
Keywords in English cost of maternity; pensions sustainability; gender pension gap; personal finance
ASJC Classification3305 Geography, Planning and Development; 2105 Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment; 2308 Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Languageen angielski
Jedrzychowska_A_Kwiecien_I_Poprawska_E_The_Motherhood_Pension_Gap.pdf 529,36 KB
Score (nominal)70
Score sourcejournalList
Publication indicators Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2016 = 0.911; WoS Impact Factor: 2018 = 2.592 (2) - 2018=2.801 (5)
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UwagaThe project is financed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education in Poland under the programme ʺRegional Initiative of Excellenceʺ 2019–2022, project number 015/RID/2018/19 total funding amount 10,721,040.00 PLN
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* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.