HTC of Wet Residues of the Brewing Process: Comprehensive Characterization of Produced Beer, Spent Grain and Valorized Residues
Mateusz Jackowski , Łukasz Niedźwiecki , Magdalena Lech , Mateusz Wnukowski , Amit Arora , Monika Tkaczuk-Serafin , Marcin Baranowski , Krystian Krochmalny , Vivek K. Veetil , Przemysław Seruga , Anna Trusek , Halina Pawlak-Kruczek
AbstractSteady consumption of beer results in a steady output of residues, i.e., brewer’s spent grain (BSG). Its valorization, using hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) seems sensible. However, a significant knowledge gap regarding the variability of this residue and its influence on the valorization process and its potential use in biorefineries exists. This study attempted to fill this gap by characterization of BSG in conjunction with the main product (beer), taking into accounts details of the brewing process. Moreover, different methods to assess the performance of HTC were investigated. Overall, the differences in terms of the fuel properties of both types of spent grain were much less stark, in comparison to the differences between the respective beers. The use of HTC as a pretreatment of BSG for subsequent use as a biorefinery feedstock can be considered beneficial. HTC was helpful in uniformization and improvement of the fuel properties. A significant decrease in the oxygen content and O/C ratio and improved grindability was achieved. The Weber method proved to be feasible for HTC productivity assessment for commercial installations, giving satisfactory results for most of the cases, contrary to traditional ash tracer method, which resulted in significant overestimations of the mass yield.
|Journal series||Energies, [ENERGIES], ISSN 1996-1073, (N/A 140 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||0.95|
|Keywords in English||hydrothermal carbonization; hydrochars; beer; brewers spent grain; pyrolysis|
|Publication indicators||: 2018 = 1.156; : 2018 = 2.707 (2) - 2018=2.99 (5)|
|Uwaga||Financial support of this research from the National Science Centre, Poland–project no. 2019/33/N/ST8/02641, is gratefully acknowledged.|
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